Today’s reading is: Deut. 21:10-25:19
Deuteronomy Chapter Twenty-One
(Outline continues from yesterday)
- Moses gives instructions for how captive women were to be treated. They are provided for as grieving orphans (though not as widows) and then properly married (Deut. 21:10-14).
- Moses gives instructions for polygamous marriages which exalts the divine principle of firstborn higher than any human considerations as to favoritism among the wives (Deut. 21:15-17).
- Moses gives instructions for how to deal with rebellious, uncontrollable youth (Deut. 21:18-21 cf. Ex. 20:12 cf. Dt. 27:16; Ex. 21:17; Lev. 20:9).
- Moses gives instructions for the most shameful, and accursed manner of capital punishment: the public display of an executed one (Deut. 21:22,23). The preview of the shame of Christ (Jn. 19:31-38) is developed by the Apostle Paul (Gal. 3:13).
Deuteronomy Chapter Twenty-Two
- Moses launches into a series of instructions on many different topics throughout the remainder of his 3rd Farewell Discourse (chapters 22-26).
- Moses begins with a series of instructions for the establishment of a stable society (Deut. 22:1-8).
- Helpful neighbors (brothers) contribute towards a stable society (Deut. 22:1-4).
- Appropriate gender roles contribute towards a stable society (Deut. 22:5).
- Appropriate animal stewardship contributes toward a stable society (Deut. 22:6,7).
- Appropriate building safety codes contribute towards a stable society (Deut. 22:8).
- What God has separated, let no man put together (Deut. 22:9-11). This is the antithesis of His action in marriage (Matt. 19:6).
- Moses reminds Israel about the memory tassels (Deut. 22:12; Num. 15:37-41).
- The final section of the chapter reviews the Lord’s standards for sexual purity (Deut. 22:13-30).
- The public shame for premarital sex (Deut. 22:13-21).
- The scourge of adultery (Deut. 22:22-24; Ex. 20:14; Lev. 20:10).
- The evil of rape (Deut. 22:25-29) and incest (Deut. 22:30; Lev. 18:8; 20:11).
Deuteronomy Chapter Twenty-Three
- Moses provides instructions for admission to, or prohibition from the assembly of the Lord (Deut. 23:1-8).
- Such banned people could not participate in the public feasts and worship of the nation of Israel.
- Such banned people could not serve as kings, priests, judges, etc.
- The illegitimate birth of Perez to Judah & Tamar (Gen. 38:29) disqualified any descendant to serve as king until the generation of David (Ruth 4:18-22).
- The prohibition of Ammonites, Moabites, and Edomites is mitigated by the grace that allows a Moabitess to become a Hebrew (Ruth 1:16).
- Moses provides instructions for ritual purity going into battle (Deut. 23:9-14).
- Moses provides instructions for runaway slaves (Deut. 23:15,16). These were runaway gentile slaves who sought refuge in Israel. They were not to be returned to their pagan slave-owners, if they desired to remain among the covenant nation.
- Moses provides warnings against cultic prostitution (Deut. 23:17,18; Lev. 19:29).
- Moses reminds Israel about not charging interest to one another (Deut. 23:19,20; Ex. 22:25; Lev. 25:35-37).
- Moses reminds Israel about the seriousness of vows (Deut. 23:21-23; Num. 30:1,2).
- Moses provides instructions for neighborliness, and hospitality towards traveling strangers (Deut. 23:24,25).
Deuteronomy Chapter Twenty-Four
- Moses provides information concerning divorce and remarriage (Deut. 24:1-4). The Lord Jesus Christ addressed this passage in His Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5:31,32), and in debate with the Pharisees (Matt. 19; Mark 10:11; Luke 16:18).
- Moses provides information concerning newlyweds and military service (Deut. 24:5 cf. 20:6).
- Moses provides information concerning improper pledges (Deut. 24:6,10-13).
- Kidnapping is added to the capital offenses of Israel’s legal code (Deut. 24:7).
- Moses reminds Israel of the seriousness of leprosy (Deut. 24:8,9; Lev. 13-14; Num. 12:10).
- Moses reminds Israel of the Lord’s fair-labor-standards provisions (Deut. 24:14,15; Lev. 19:13).
- Moses provides information concerning guilt and accountability (Deut. 24:16).
- Moses reminds Israel of the Lord’s civil charity provisions (Deut. 24:17-22; Ex. 22:21-24; 23:9; Lev. 19:33,34).
Deuteronomy Chapter Twenty-Five
- Moses provides instructions for corporal punishment as a judicial option in the courts (Deut. 25:1-3).
- The Mosaic Law maximum of 40 lashes, led to the Rabbinic custom of 39 lashes (2nd Cor. 11:24).
- The Code of Hammurabi (Law 202) permitted 60 lashes.
- The Assyrians permitted between 40 and 50 lashes.
- Moses provides instructions for fair treatment of work-animals (Deut. 25:4).
- The temporal principle is a mark of wisdom (Prov. 12:10).
- The spiritual principle is applied by Paul with reference to the support of the Pastor-Teacher by the local church (1st Cor. 9:9; 1st Tim. 5:18).
- Moses provides instructions for Levirate marriage (Deut. 25:5-10).
- This practice was behind Judah’s instructions to Onan concerning Tamar after the death of Er (Gen. 38:8).
- This practice was behind the Sadducees ridiculous hypothetical (Matt. 22:25-28).
- his practice was known in Assyria, according to Nuzi Tablet #441.
- Hittite law also allowed the father-in-law to enter into levirate marriage.
- The Book of Ruth is the Bible’s greatest illustration of this practice.
- Moses provides instructions for retribution for genital mutilation (Deut. 25:11,12).
- Moses provides instructions for fair business practices (Deut. 25:13-16; Lev. 19:35-37).
- Moses reminds Israel about the Lord’s intention to destroy Amalek (Deut. 25:17-19; Ex. 17:14-16).