Daily reading

Today’s reading is: Deut. 21:10-25:19


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Deuteronomy Chapter Twenty-One

(Outline continues from yesterday)

  1. Moses gives instructions for how captive women were to be treated. They are provided for as grieving orphans (though not as widows) and then properly married (Deut. 21:10-14).
  2. Moses gives instructions for polygamous marriages which exalts the divine principle of firstborn higher than any human considerations as to favoritism among the wives (Deut. 21:15-17).
  3. Moses gives instructions for how to deal with rebellious, uncontrollable youth (Deut. 21:18-21 cf. Ex. 20:12 cf. Dt. 27:16; Ex. 21:17; Lev. 20:9).
  4. Moses gives instructions for the most shameful, and accursed manner of capital punishment: the public display of an executed one (Deut. 21:22,23).  The preview of the shame of Christ (Jn. 19:31-38) is developed by the Apostle Paul (Gal. 3:13).

Deuteronomy Chapter Twenty-Two

  1. Moses launches into a series of instructions on many different topics throughout the remainder of his 3rd Farewell Discourse (chapters 22-26).
  2. Moses begins with a series of instructions for the establishment of a stable society (Deut. 22:1-8).
    1. Helpful neighbors (brothers) contribute towards a stable society (Deut. 22:1-4).
    2. Appropriate gender roles contribute towards a stable society (Deut. 22:5).
    3. Appropriate animal stewardship contributes toward a stable society (Deut. 22:6,7).
    4. Appropriate building safety codes contribute towards a stable society (Deut. 22:8).
  3. What God has separated, let no man put together (Deut. 22:9-11).  This is the antithesis of His action in marriage (Matt. 19:6).
  4. Moses reminds Israel about the memory tassels (Deut. 22:12; Num. 15:37-41).
  5. The final section of the chapter reviews the Lord’s standards for sexual purity (Deut. 22:13-30).
    1. The public shame for premarital sex (Deut. 22:13-21).
    2. The scourge of adultery (Deut. 22:22-24; Ex. 20:14; Lev. 20:10).
    3. The evil of rape (Deut. 22:25-29) and incest (Deut. 22:30; Lev. 18:8; 20:11).

Deuteronomy Chapter Twenty-Three

  1. Moses provides instructions for admission to, or prohibition from the assembly of the Lord (Deut. 23:1-8).
    1. Such banned people could not participate in the public feasts and worship of the nation of Israel.
    2. Such banned people could not serve as kings, priests, judges, etc.
    3. The illegitimate birth of Perez to Judah & Tamar (Gen. 38:29) disqualified any descendant to serve as king until the generation of David (Ruth 4:18-22).
    4. The prohibition of Ammonites, Moabites, and Edomites is mitigated by the grace that allows a Moabitess to become a Hebrew (Ruth 1:16).
  2. Moses provides instructions for ritual purity going into battle (Deut. 23:9-14).
  3. Moses provides instructions for runaway slaves (Deut. 23:15,16).  These were runaway gentile slaves who sought refuge in Israel.  They were not to be returned to their pagan slave-owners, if they desired to remain among the covenant nation.
  4. Moses provides warnings against cultic prostitution (Deut. 23:17,18; Lev. 19:29).
  5. Moses reminds Israel about not charging interest to one another (Deut. 23:19,20; Ex. 22:25; Lev. 25:35-37).
  6. Moses reminds Israel about the seriousness of vows (Deut. 23:21-23; Num. 30:1,2).
  7. Moses provides instructions for neighborliness, and hospitality towards traveling strangers (Deut. 23:24,25).

Deuteronomy Chapter Twenty-Four

  1. Moses provides information concerning divorce and remarriage (Deut. 24:1-4).  The Lord Jesus Christ addressed this passage in His Sermon on the Mount (Matt. 5:31,32), and in debate with the Pharisees (Matt. 19; Mark 10:11; Luke 16:18).
  2. Moses provides information concerning newlyweds and military service (Deut. 24:5 cf. 20:6).
  3. Moses provides information concerning improper pledges (Deut. 24:6,10-13).
  4. Kidnapping is added to the capital offenses of Israel’s legal code (Deut. 24:7).
  5. Moses reminds Israel of the seriousness of leprosy (Deut. 24:8,9; Lev. 13-14; Num. 12:10).
  6. Moses reminds Israel of the Lord’s fair-labor-standards provisions (Deut. 24:14,15; Lev. 19:13).
  7. Moses provides information concerning guilt and accountability (Deut. 24:16).
  8. Moses reminds Israel of the Lord’s civil charity provisions (Deut. 24:17-22; Ex. 22:21-24; 23:9; Lev. 19:33,34).

Deuteronomy Chapter Twenty-Five

  1. Moses provides instructions for corporal punishment as a judicial option in the courts (Deut. 25:1-3).
    1. The Mosaic Law maximum of 40 lashes, led to the Rabbinic custom of 39 lashes (2nd Cor. 11:24).
    2. The Code of Hammurabi (Law 202) permitted 60 lashes.
    3. The Assyrians permitted between 40 and 50 lashes.
  2. Moses provides instructions for fair treatment of work-animals (Deut. 25:4).
    1. The temporal principle is a mark of wisdom (Prov. 12:10).
    2. The spiritual principle is applied by Paul with reference to the support of the Pastor-Teacher by the local church (1st Cor. 9:9; 1st Tim. 5:18).
  3. Moses provides instructions for Levirate marriage (Deut. 25:5-10).
    1. This practice was behind Judah’s instructions to Onan concerning Tamar after the death of Er (Gen. 38:8).
    2. This practice was behind the Sadducees ridiculous hypothetical (Matt. 22:25-28).
    3. his practice was known in Assyria, according to Nuzi Tablet #441.
    4. Hittite law also allowed the father-in-law to enter into levirate marriage.
    5. The Book of Ruth is the Bible’s greatest illustration of this practice.
  4. Moses provides instructions for retribution for genital mutilation (Deut. 25:11,12).
  5. Moses provides instructions for fair business practices (Deut. 25:13-16; Lev. 19:35-37).
  6. Moses reminds Israel about the Lord’s intention to destroy Amalek (Deut. 25:17-19; Ex. 17:14-16).