Daily reading

Today’s reading is: Ex. 10-12


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Exodus Chapter Ten

  1. The Lord demonstrated His sovereign power with plague #8: locusts (Ex. 10:1-20).
    1. The command reissued (vv.1-3).
    2. The specific advanced notice (vv.4-6).
      1. Pharaoh’s servants, for the first time, are willing to risk defying Pharaoh (v.7).
      2. Pharaoh, for the first time, makes an offer of Israel’s release after the specific advanced notice, and before the fulfillment of the plague (vv.8-11).
      3. Pharaoh offers that the men can go worship, but the children must remain behind (v.10).
    3. Moses’ fulfillment (vv.12-15).
    4. Pharaoh’s response was another promise of repentance, request for relief, and betrayal of his word (vv.16-20).  Verse 19 is the first occurrence of the famous יַם־סוּף yam-suwph, Red Sea.
    5. Pharaoh’s hardened heart leads to plague #9.
  2. The Lord demonstrated His sovereign power with plague #9: darkness (Ex. 10:21-29).
    1. The command is not reissued.
    2. There is no specific advanced notice given.
    3. Moses’ fulfillment (vv.21-23).  Darkness affected the Egyptians, but not Israel (v.23).
    4. Pharaoh’s response was to allow Israel to depart, with their children, but not their livestock and possessions (vv.24-29).
      1. Moses declares that this is yet again an unacceptable compromise (vv.25,26).
      2. Pharaoh banishes Moses under penalty of death (vv.27,28).
      3. Moses asserts that he will not see Pharaoh’s face again (v.29).
    5. Pharaoh’s hardness of heart leads to  plague #10.

Exodus Chapter Eleven

  1. Before Moses departs from Pharaoh’s presence for the final time, the Lord gives an extensive specific advanced notice warning for plague #10 (Ex. 11:1-8).
    1. The warning message includes an invitation for God-fearing Egyptians to provide grace financial blessings to Israel (vv.2,3).
    2. The warning message describes the greatest affliction Egypt has ever endured, or will ever endure (vv.4-6).  The plague will consist in the death of every first-born male from Pharaoh’s first-born son, all the way down to the poorest Egyptian’s first-born son.  Every household in Egypt will be affected.
    3. The warning message promises protection for Israel against the plague to hit Egypt (v.7).
    4. Moses asserts that Pharaoh’s own servants will beg for Israel’s departure (v.8).
  2. The Lord assures Moses for the final time, that all of these events have been according to His purpose, for His glory (Ex. 11:9,10).

Exodus Chapter Twelve

  1. The Lord revealed the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread to Moses and Aaron (Ex. 12:1-28).
    1. The calendar of Israel is going to reflect this event from this day forward (v.2).  The month is Abib (Ex. 13:4), later called Nisan (Neh. 2:1; Est. 3:7).
    2. On the 10th of Abib/Nisan, every family household is to set apart a lamb for sacrifice (Ex. 12:3,4).  This lamb must be an unblemished male (v.5).
    3. On the 14th day of Abib/Nisan, all Israel is to slaughter the lamb (v.6).
    4. Blood from the lamb must be spread upon the doorposts of the house where it is eaten (v.7).
    5. The entire lamb must be eaten that night, in great haste, in readiness to depart (vv.8-11).
  2. The Lord explains the need for blood on the doorposts, as the mark of faith, by Israel, in the promised deliverance by God (Ex. 12:12,13).
    1. The redemption had previously been promised.
    2. Faith appropriated the promise, to the application and benefit of the individual.
    3. The Lord’s observation of the sacrificial blood causes Him to “pass over” the individuals who responded to His promise with faith.
  3. The picture of this redemption story is the most beautiful picture of the Lord Jesus Christ (1st Cor. 5:7).
    1. He was crucified on Passover (Mt. 26:2; Jn. 13:1; 18:39).
    2. He was the unblemished lamb (Jn. 1:29; 2nd Cor. 5:21; Heb. 4:16; 7:26,27).
    3. He was slain for the benefit of others (Acts 20:28; 2nd Cor. 5:21; 1st Pet. 1:19).
    4. God the Father’s observation of God the Son’s blood produced a Divine satisfaction for the pending judgment (1st Jn. 2:2; Rom. 3:25).
  4. The 10th plague struck Egypt, and affected every household among the Egyptians, as the Lord had said it would (Ex. 12:29,30; 11:4-6).
  5. Pharaoh “called for” Moses and Aaron at night, and “said” (through the messenger), “Rise up, get out . . . and go” (Ex. 12:31).
    1. This was a total surrender of will, permitting the total departure of Israel—every man, woman, child, and animal (Ex. 12:32a).
    2. This was a recognition that only through a right orientation to Israel would any gentile nation receive Divine blessing (Ex. 12:32b).
  6. The Egyptian people assisted in the rapid departure of Israel (Ex. 12:33-36).
  7. The Exodus Route—leg #1: from Rameses to Succoth (Ex. 12:37).  Apparently, all in one day (Ex. 12:51).
    1. The hosts (cf. Ex. 12:41) which departed was 600 ’eleph of foot-soldiers, besides non-combatants. See NAC Exodus excursus. Should we understand this figure as six hundred thousand or six hundred platoons?
    2. They were accompanied by an unknown number of non-Jews, called a “mixed multitude” (Ex. 12:38).
    3. Rameses.  רַעְמְסֵס ra‘mecec #7486: Egypt. orig. child of the sun.  A region in Goshen (Gen. 47:11).  A storage city in Goshen built by Hebrew slaves (Ex. 1:11).  Should not be confused with the Pharaohs named Ramses.
    4. Succoth. סֻכֹּות sukkowth #5523: booths.  The name of a stop by Jacob on his way back to Canaan from Haran (Gen. 33:17).  The name of the first stop on the Exodus Route (Ex. 12:37; Num. 33:5).
  8. The sojourn in Egypt was 430 years (Ex. 12:40,41).  400 years of bondage (Gen. 15:13), after thirty years of peace with the Egyptians.
  9. The Lord instructs Israel that this very night, the Passover night, is to be remembered eternally as the night of Israel’s redemption & deliverance (Ex. 12:42-49).