Today’s reading is: Ex. 10-12
Exodus Chapter Ten
- The Lord demonstrated His sovereign power with plague #8: locusts (Ex. 10:1-20).
- The command reissued (vv.1-3).
- The specific advanced notice (vv.4-6).
- Pharaoh’s servants, for the first time, are willing to risk defying Pharaoh (v.7).
- Pharaoh, for the first time, makes an offer of Israel’s release after the specific advanced notice, and before the fulfillment of the plague (vv.8-11).
- Pharaoh offers that the men can go worship, but the children must remain behind (v.10).
- Moses’ fulfillment (vv.12-15).
- Pharaoh’s response was another promise of repentance, request for relief, and betrayal of his word (vv.16-20). Verse 19 is the first occurrence of the famous יַם־סוּף yam-suwph, Red Sea.
- Pharaoh’s hardened heart leads to plague #9.
- The Lord demonstrated His sovereign power with plague #9: darkness (Ex. 10:21-29).
- The command is not reissued.
- There is no specific advanced notice given.
- Moses’ fulfillment (vv.21-23). Darkness affected the Egyptians, but not Israel (v.23).
- Pharaoh’s response was to allow Israel to depart, with their children, but not their livestock and possessions (vv.24-29).
- Moses declares that this is yet again an unacceptable compromise (vv.25,26).
- Pharaoh banishes Moses under penalty of death (vv.27,28).
- Moses asserts that he will not see Pharaoh’s face again (v.29).
- Pharaoh’s hardness of heart leads to plague #10.
Exodus Chapter Eleven
- Before Moses departs from Pharaoh’s presence for the final time, the Lord gives an extensive specific advanced notice warning for plague #10 (Ex. 11:1-8).
- The warning message includes an invitation for God-fearing Egyptians to provide grace financial blessings to Israel (vv.2,3).
- The warning message describes the greatest affliction Egypt has ever endured, or will ever endure (vv.4-6). The plague will consist in the death of every first-born male from Pharaoh’s first-born son, all the way down to the poorest Egyptian’s first-born son. Every household in Egypt will be affected.
- The warning message promises protection for Israel against the plague to hit Egypt (v.7).
- Moses asserts that Pharaoh’s own servants will beg for Israel’s departure (v.8).
- The Lord assures Moses for the final time, that all of these events have been according to His purpose, for His glory (Ex. 11:9,10).
Exodus Chapter Twelve
- The Lord revealed the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread to Moses and Aaron (Ex. 12:1-28).
- The calendar of Israel is going to reflect this event from this day forward (v.2). The month is Abib (Ex. 13:4), later called Nisan (Neh. 2:1; Est. 3:7).
- On the 10th of Abib/Nisan, every family household is to set apart a lamb for sacrifice (Ex. 12:3,4). This lamb must be an unblemished male (v.5).
- On the 14th day of Abib/Nisan, all Israel is to slaughter the lamb (v.6).
- Blood from the lamb must be spread upon the doorposts of the house where it is eaten (v.7).
- The entire lamb must be eaten that night, in great haste, in readiness to depart (vv.8-11).
- The Lord explains the need for blood on the doorposts, as the mark of faith, by Israel, in the promised deliverance by God (Ex. 12:12,13).
- The redemption had previously been promised.
- Faith appropriated the promise, to the application and benefit of the individual.
- The Lord’s observation of the sacrificial blood causes Him to “pass over” the individuals who responded to His promise with faith.
- The picture of this redemption story is the most beautiful picture of the Lord Jesus Christ (1st Cor. 5:7).
- He was crucified on Passover (Mt. 26:2; Jn. 13:1; 18:39).
- He was the unblemished lamb (Jn. 1:29; 2nd Cor. 5:21; Heb. 4:16; 7:26,27).
- He was slain for the benefit of others (Acts 20:28; 2nd Cor. 5:21; 1st Pet. 1:19).
- God the Father’s observation of God the Son’s blood produced a Divine satisfaction for the pending judgment (1st Jn. 2:2; Rom. 3:25).
- The 10th plague struck Egypt, and affected every household among the Egyptians, as the Lord had said it would (Ex. 12:29,30; 11:4-6).
- Pharaoh “called for” Moses and Aaron at night, and “said” (through the messenger), “Rise up, get out . . . and go” (Ex. 12:31).
- This was a total surrender of will, permitting the total departure of Israel—every man, woman, child, and animal (Ex. 12:32a).
- This was a recognition that only through a right orientation to Israel would any gentile nation receive Divine blessing (Ex. 12:32b).
- The Egyptian people assisted in the rapid departure of Israel (Ex. 12:33-36).
- The Exodus Route—leg #1: from Rameses to Succoth (Ex. 12:37). Apparently, all in one day (Ex. 12:51).
- The hosts (cf. Ex. 12:41) which departed was 600 ’eleph of foot-soldiers, besides non-combatants. See NAC Exodus excursus. Should we understand this figure as six hundred thousand or six hundred platoons?
- They were accompanied by an unknown number of non-Jews, called a “mixed multitude” (Ex. 12:38).
- Rameses. רַעְמְסֵס ra‘mecec #7486: Egypt. orig. child of the sun. A region in Goshen (Gen. 47:11). A storage city in Goshen built by Hebrew slaves (Ex. 1:11). Should not be confused with the Pharaohs named Ramses.
- Succoth. סֻכֹּות sukkowth #5523: booths. The name of a stop by Jacob on his way back to Canaan from Haran (Gen. 33:17). The name of the first stop on the Exodus Route (Ex. 12:37; Num. 33:5).
- The sojourn in Egypt was 430 years (Ex. 12:40,41). 400 years of bondage (Gen. 15:13), after thirty years of peace with the Egyptians.
- The Lord instructs Israel that this very night, the Passover night, is to be remembered eternally as the night of Israel’s redemption & deliverance (Ex. 12:42-49).